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  Psychology of Adolescence Quiz 2/Chapters 5 - 7
Choose the best answer.

1. According to the text, in American society when things go wrong with an adolescent, the adolescent's problems are usually attributed to

A) hormones.

B) peers.

C) the father.

D) the mother.

E) low SES.


2. Larson's study of parent-adolescent conflict in India demonstrated that

A) middle-SES families in India and in the United States experience a similar amount of conflict.

B) the permissive parenting characteristic of India results in more family conflict than is found in the United States.

C) there is less adolescent-parent conflict in India than there is in the United States.

D) adolescents in India break away from parents earlier than they do in the United States due to younger marriage ages in India.

E) authoritarian parenting is very rare in India.


3. When parents not only influence their adolescents but are also influenced by them, this is called

A) synchrony.

B) secure attachment.

C) emotional autonomy.

D) reciprocal socialization.

E) continuity.


4. According to Bowlby and Ainsworth, secure attachment to parents is central to the development of

A) creativity.

B) social competence.

C) moral reasoning.

D) metacognition.

E) gender-role identity.


5. Research evidence about the effects of divorce on adolescents indicates that

A) most adolescents cope well with their parents' divorce.

B) most adolescents from divorced families have adjustment problems.

C) adjustment problems are about equal between adolescents from divorced families and those from intact families.

D) divorce is always more negative for adolescents than is having unhappy parents stay married.

E) girls disengage from the family more than boys do.


6. A longitudinal study of adolescents found that whether or not one was a runaway at age 14 related to later behaviors. Specifically, it was found that at age 18, repeat runaways were more likely than one-time runaways to

A) come from single-parent homes.

B) be an ethnic minority.

C) be a drug abuser.

D) be from a low-SES family.

E) All of the above


7. Parents who use an authoritarian style of parenting tend to have adolescents who show

A) high levels of autonomy.

B) low levels of autonomy.

C) a strong ability to initiate activities.

D) high levels of creativity.

E) low levels of creativity.


8. Jeremy is highly artistic and helps bring out more-creative behavior in his parents. In turn, they encourage Jeremy's artistic talents and try to take him to museums and art exhibits. This best illustrates

A) secure attachment.

B) synchrony.

C) reciprocal socialization.

D) continuity.

E) discontinuity.


9. In comparison to "healthy" families, "unhealthy" families deal with adolescent pressures for autonomy with _______________ parental control.

A) love-withdrawal

B) power-oriented

C) financial-withdrawal

D) awareness-oriented

E) All of the above


10. Fourteen-year-old Haley and her mother are so attuned to each other's behavior that their conversations unknowingly involve carefully coordinated turn taking. Their interaction best demonstrates

A) secure attachment.

B) reciprocal socialization.

C) synchrony.

D) continuity.

E) All of the above


11. Which parenting technique would most likely result in an adolescent thinking, "All my parents think about are their careers!"?

A) Authoritarian

B) Indulgent

C) Permissive

D) Authoritative

E) Neglectful


12. Research has shown that fathers do ____________ family work as mothers do.

A) about the same amount of

B) slightly less

C) two to three times less

D) 10 to 12 times less

E) twice as much


13. According to Baumrind, which type of parents is punishment-oriented and engage in little discussion regarding limits?

A) Authoritative

B) Neglectful

C) Indulgent

D) Authoritarian

E) Both indulgent and neglectful


14. Darrell and LaTisha use firm control with their adolescent daughter, but encourage communication and are willing to negotiate some rules. They are also warm and nurturant. According to Baumrind, what is their parenting style?

A) Permissive

B) Indulgent

C) Authoritarian

D) Authoritative

E) Neglectful


15. In a study of family relocation, which youngsters were more vulnerable to the immediate negative effects of moving?

A) Preschoolers of both genders

B) 6- to 10-year-old girls

C) 6- to 10-year-old boys

D) 12- to 14-year-old girls

E) 12- to 14-year-old boys

16. Longitudinal research has shown that, compared to nonbullies, boys who were identified as bullies in middle school were more likely in their twenties to be

A) unmarried.

B) convicted of at least one crime.

C) alcoholic.

D) depressed.

E) living with their parents.


17. Paula has developed a training program to improve the peer relationships of neglected adolescents. The program likely includes teaching the adolescents how to

A) listen in a friendly way.

B) ask questions to gain peers' attention.

C) appropriately enter groups of peers.

D) talk about themselves in ways that relate to their peers' interests.

E) All of the above


18. What percentage of U.S. adolescents have had at least one date by the time they reach 16 years of age?

A) 20 percent

B) 35 percent

C) 50 percent

D) 75 percent

E) 90 percent


19. Studies of gender differences in friendships have shown that girls are more likely than boys to

A) refer to the faithfulness of their friends when asked to describe them.

B) be a member of a clique.

C) self-disclose.

D) be involved in the social network of school.

E) All of the above


20. According to the developmental construction perspective, adolescent friendships are best described using

A) the symmetrical intimate mode.

B) conglomerate strategies.

C) norms.

D) a multidimensional model.

E) case studies.


21. When adolescents are first exploring romantic relationships, they tend to

A) spend time alone as a couple, but not to explore sexual needs.

B) spend time exploring sexual needs, but not yet developing true intimacy.

C) spend time together in mixed-sex groups.

D) develop interactive dating scripts.

E) possess affectionate love for each other.


22. Anna Freud studied six children from different families who banded together after their parents were killed in World War II. What did she observe?

A) Peer conformity

B) Antisocial and interdependent behavior

C) Delinquent behavior and intense independence

D) Psychotic behavior and delinquency

E) Interdependence and distancing from outsiders


23. Nineteen-year-old Rebecca and 20-year-old Nate have dated for 3 years and have a deep caring for each other. What type of love do they most likely possess?

A) Romantic

B) Platonic

C) Affectionate

D) Pseudo-intimate

E) Eros


24. Coleman's research showed that in all the schools studied, the leading adolescent crowds were usually composed of

A) the most intelligent students.

B) popular boys and the smartest girls.

C) the most physically attractive students.

D) male athletes and popular girls.

E) the smartest girls and male athletes.


25. When adolescents know what people around them expect, yet deliberately behave in a way that is counter to the group's expectations, this is called

A) peer neglect.

B) peer rejection.

C) nonconformity.

D) anticonformity.

E) a controversial child.


26. Gabriel knows what his peers expect of him, but he deliberately does what is contrary to the group's expectations. This best illustrates

A) nonconformity.

B) peer neglect.

C) a controversial child.

D) anticonformity.

E) a clique.


27. Connolly discovered that adolescents who were involved in _________ moved more readily into romantic relationships than their counterparts who were not as involved in _________ .

A) cliques

B) mixed-sex peer groups

C) extracurricular activities

D) school

E) community service activities


28. Research has shown that, compared to adolescents who are not in love, adolescents in love are more likely to

A) finish high school.

B) develop depression.

C) engage in delinquent behaviors.

D) be from a single-parent home.

E) be popular.


29. The largest youth organization in the United States is

A) Boys' and Girls' Clubs.

B) 4-H.

C) Girl Scouts.

D) Junior Achievement.

E) Boy Scouts.


30. Matt is preparing a training program to help rejected adolescents interact more effectively with their peers. The goal of his program is to help the adolescents

A) assert themselves more and stand up for their beliefs.

B) improve their schoolwork so they will win the respect of their peers.

C) attract attention from their peers and hold their peers' attention by telling stories.

D) listen to their peers and "hear what they say" instead of trying to dominate peer interactions.

E) All of the above


31. Junior high schools emerged in the 1920s and 1930s partly because of

A) parents' dissatisfaction with elementary school education.

B) the culture's focus on training youth to become productive adults.

C) the need for more schools due to the growing student population.

D) a surplus of teachers trained to teach adolescents.

E) All of the above


32. Comer developed the Project for Change, which incorporates the belief that

A) schools need to change their current curricula to incorporate more self-esteem building programs.

B) school administrators should try to make changes quickly rather than slowly.

C) single-sex and single-race schools need to be abolished.

D) more college students should change their majors to education.

E) the school community should work together as a team and produce a familylike school environment.


33. According to the text, although the transition to middle school or junior high is a normative event for most adolescents, for many adolescents the transition is stressful. This is because

A) most adolescents have to deal with bullies in middle school or junior high.

B) most parents are not as involved in their child's life as they used to be.

C) teachers are less nurturing in junior high and middle school than in elementary school.

D) other changes in the adolescent's life are occurring at the same time.

E) All of the above


34. Asa is going to live at home while attending the local college, whereas his friends are going to live on campus. Asa will probably

A) earn lower grades than his friends earn.

B) earn higher grades than his friends earn.

C) be less affectionate with his parents than his friends are with their parents.

D) be more affectionate with his parents than his friends are with their parents.

E) have more problems with peers than his friends will.


35. Reggie is taking advanced math and science courses in high school. Most likely, from what ethnic minority group is Reggie?

A) Arab American

B) Latino

C) African American

D) Native American

E) Asian American


36. The difference between junior high schools and middle schools is that

A) the curriculum of high schools is more like that of junior highs than that of middle schools.

B) junior high schools consist of two grade levels, whereas middle schools consist of three grade levels.

C) the number of middle schools in the United States has increased, whereas the number of junior high schools has decreased.

D) the transition to junior high school is more stressful for adolescents than the transition to middle school.

E) All of the above


37. Which of the following is NOT part of the APA's learner-centered principles?

A) Heredity plays a role in learning.

B) Culture affects learning.

C) The teacher's instructional practices affect the learner.

D) A back-to-basics approach works best with low achievement-oriented learners.

E) Standards need to be appropriately high and challenging for students.


38. Ms. Ang teaches high school English and tries to expand the use of cooperative learning whenever possible. This initiative is based on what recommendation of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development?

A) Teach a core of common knowledge.

B) Create communities for learning.

C) Strengthen teachers and principals.

D) Provide an opportunity for all students to succeed.

E) Connect schools with communities.


39. In a study investigating the transition from sixth to seventh grade, it was found that

A) friendship helped in adjustment to seventh grade.

B) self-esteem increased because students viewed themselves as more mature.

C) there were no adjustment problems in seventh grade.

D) the nature of the school environment had little to do with adjusting to junior high school.

E) students experienced more stress before the transition than after the transition.


40. In which way do effective and ineffective teachers NOT differ?

A) How competently they manage the activities of the class

B) How well they engage students in challenging tasks

C) How closely they monitor students' behaviors

D) How smoothly they keep the lesson moving

E) How they respond to students' misbehaviors


41. Lipsitz found that the most striking feature of the best middle schools in the nation was

A) a curriculum focusing on back-to-basics.

B) a high degree of parental involvement, especially in raising money for the school.

C) having an authoritative strategy of classroom management.

D) a willingness to adapt to individual differences in students' development.

E) the use of open education and the jigsaw classroom.


42. Students of which ethnic group are most likely to be suspended from school?

A) Non-Latino White

B) Latino

C) African American

D) Native American

E) Asian American


43. Which of the following is the most effective style of classroom management?

A) Authoritarian strategy

B) Permissive strategy

C) Direct instruction approach

D) Authoritative strategy

E) Least-restrictive environment


44. According to research, first-year college students who live in dormitories are more likely than those who live at home to

A) interact with peers.

B) achieve high grade points.

C) maintain closer ties with their parents.

D) get to know their professors.

E) All of the above


45. When did the curriculum in high schools change from strictly intellectual training to a combination of general education, college preparatory, and vocational courses?

A) 1880s

B) 1900s

C) 1920s

D) 1940s

E)  1960s


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