Metaphors of science
“Production and understanding variation” is a
better metaphor of science than “20 questions”
In this case, reality is assumed not to give
answers to questions.
Researchers produce or observe variation in order to
understand the causes of or conditions associated with
The creativity of the researcher in producing or
observing variation is the basis for how well understood
the phenomenon is.
Good research involves producing, observing, and
understanding variation in phenomena.