Meter: The relationship of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line
1. Iambic Foot two syllables: second one stressed for-bíd
2. Trochaic Foot two syllables:first one stressed pó-et
3. Anapestic Foot three syllables:third one stressed On a cóld
4. Dactylic Foot three syllables:first one stressed cát-a-pult
5. Spondee two syllables:both stressed vást weíght
Once you've established the basic pattern, you can determine how many feet there are in a line. The most common poetic pattern in English is iambic pentameter (or five feet per line).
A line of poetry is either end-stopped (the idea is complete and the line ends in punctuation) or characterized by enjambment (the idea continues on to the next line without a syntactical break. Sometimes called a run-on line.) A ceasura is a slight pause within a line.
Common Sound Techniques: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance, rhyme.
Rhyme: A similarity or correspondence is the vowel sounds of two words that have differing consonant sounds. "End-rhyme" is the most common use of rhyme. A distribution of end-rhymes in a poem is often linked to common formal structures. Iambic Pentameter with no end-rhymes is call "Blank Verse" (what Shakespeare used in his plays).
Structure: Structural analysis of the poem helps us to see how the
rhythm an sound elements in a poem are linked. Poetry follows special structural
Stanza: Functions much as a paragraph does in prose. Stanza length for many English poems is either four lines (a quatrain) or eight lines. (Iambic pentameter, rhyme pattern abababcc, is called "ottava rima." In free verse the stanza is sometimes called the "verse paragraph."
Free Verse: No strict adherence to metrical patterns and fixed line lengths or stanza structure.
Sonnet: Fourteen lines, iambic pentameter. Shakespearean sonnet has rhyme pattern abab/cdcd/efef/gg (contains three quatrains and a couplet); Petrarchan sonnet has rhyme pattern abbaabba/cdecde (contains an octet and a sestet).
Couplet: A stanza of two lines (often with end rhymes). A heroic couplet rhymes and contains a complete thought (second line is end-stopped).
Triplet or tercet: A three line stanza usually with one rhyme, often the first and third lines (called terza rima when pattern is aba/bcb/cdc/dcd, etc.)
Villanelle: An elaborate French form sometimes used in English: Five tercets (first and third lines rhyme) and final quatrain (first, third, and fourth lines rhyme with first and third lines of tercets, second line rhymes with middle of tercets); First line of poem is the last line of the second and fourth tercets, and third line is last line of third and fifth, and they reappear as last two lines of final stanza.
Narrative Poetry tells a story.
Lyric Poetry captures and conveys emotions, feelings, sensroy impressions, reflections, or thoughts.
Special Kinds of Lyrics
Elegy: A contemplative poem that mourns or laments a death or passing (as an adjective to describe the tone of a piece: "elegaic.")
Ode: A long elaborate poem with a noble, lofty theme and an intellectual tone. There are three different types of odes:
Horatian Ode: each stanza follows the same metrical pattern.
Pindaric Ode: divided into three parts, strophe, antistrophe, and epode.
Irregular Ode: stanzas are freely varied in number and lines.