1. What are the giant outer planets are composed mostly of?
2. What are the physical properties of the different layers of the earth?
3. What is the process that fuels the sun? Describe it.
4. What are the implications of increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere?
5. What powers the Earth's internal heat engine?
6. Name and describe the different mineral classes.
7. What is an isotope?
8. What form of iron is the chief iron ore?
9. What are some chemical tests for different minerals?
10. What is "atomic mass"?
11. What do we mean when we say "texture" of a rock.
12. Where do igneous rocks come from?
13. Can you name the main types of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
14. What is the difference between Volcanic rocks and plutonic rocks?
15. How prominent are igneous rocks? What is theclass of rock that you
are most likely to see? What is the most abundanct in the crust?
16. At what temperature do minerals crystallize in hydrothermal veins?
17. Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow?
18. What are tectonic settings of the different types of magmas?
19. Know which igneous rocks are extrusive, and which ones are intrusive?
20. Given a certain proportion of the common igneous minerals, and the
size of the crystals, could you name the rock?
21. What is a Lahar, and what kind of damage have lahars caused? Think
22. What is a fumarole?
23. How do vesicles form in basalt?
24. Name some examples of volcanoes that form where two tectonic plates
25. What kind of rocks form from volcanic ash?
26. What are the main types of soils, what are they like, and under what
conditions do they form?
27. What are the main factors that affect the rate at which rocks will
28. What do you get when you weather potassium feldspar (orthoclase)?
29. What happens to the potassium (K) in feldspar during chemical weathering?
30. Know the chart on page 128 that shows the stability of different minerals
under weathering conditions.
31. How fast does water have to flow to carry and deposit sand?
32. how do you turn limestone into dolostone?
33. What is the porosity of newly deposited mud?
34. If you are looking at a cross section of a sand dune, can you tell
which way the wind blew?
35. What causes subsidence of a tectonic basin?
36. Where do you get the pressure and heat that drive metamorphism?
37. What is the mineralogical differences between nonfoliated and foliated
38. What conditions are responsible for metamorphism?
39. What is contact metamorphism and where does it occur?
40. Why did they once make blackboards out of slate?
41. Know how to figure out the relative timing of geologic events from
a diagram using superposition, crosscutting relations, etc.
42. When did the quaternary period begin? When did the Paleozoic era begin?,
when did the Mesozoic era begin, and when did the Cenozoic era begin?
43. Which era saw the evolution of Human beings (homo sapiens)
44. Explain the principles of superposition, cross cutting relations and
45. Who proposed the theory of evolution?
46. Which kind of fold has the oldest rocks in the middle and which kind
has the youngest rocks in the middle.
47. What kind of structures might trap oil, and what other conditions
would need to be met to do so?
48. How do get a rift basin? Think force.
49. Structurally, what is a rift valley?
50. What type of force the most likely to lead to folding?